NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science India and the Contemporary World – II Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
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|Chapter Name||Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|Category||Class 10 HISTORY Notes|
Ch 01- The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Text Book Exercise
1. Write a note on:
- a) Guiseppe Mazzini
- b) Count Camillo de Cavour
- c) The Greek war of independence
- d) Frankfurt parliament
- e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
- (a) Giuseppe Mazzini
- – He was an Italian revolutionary, who was born in Genoa in 1807.
- – He founded two secret societies, namely Young Italy and Young Europe.
- – He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities.
- – Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies, more such societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
- (b) Count Camillo de Cavour
- – He was the Chief Minister of Piedmont.
- – He was neither a democratic nor a revolutionary. But he led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
- – Through tact and diplomacy, he entered into an alliance with France and succeeded in defeating Austrian forces in 1859.
- (c) The Greek War of Independence
- – Rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire, struggled a lot which resulted in the establishment of an Independent kingdom of Greece. (1821–32)
- – Greek nationalists were influenced by the idea of liberal nationalism.
- – They were supported by the West European countries in this war of independence.
- – The poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, participated in this war against the Ottoman Empire.
- – Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832, Greece was recognised as an independent nation.
- (d) Frankfurt Parliament
- – The German middle class decided to vote for an All German National Assembly in 1848 and 831 persons were elected and comprised the National Assembly.
- – The assembly decided to organise the Parliament at Frankfurt in the Church of St Paul.
- – On 18th May, 1848, the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened.
- – The assembly decided that the German nation would be a constitutional monarchy controlled by Parliament.
- – The Parliament also faced strong opposition from the aristocracy and military as it was dominated by the middle-class who kept in mind the demands of workers and artisans.
- – Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with the aristocracy and won over the liberal nationalist middle-class. As a result of this, the middle-class lost their mass support.
- – The Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and a victory of the monarchy.
- (e) The role of Women in Nationalist Struggles
- – Women played very important role in nationalist struggles all over the world.
- – They actively participated in movements, faced the tortures of police, stood by the male activists and revolutionaries.
- – They were members of various revolutionary organisations.
- – An important contribution of women was seen in the French Revolution, in which men and women participated equally.
- – They spread the idea of liberal nationalism. Even, the concept of liberty is personified as a woman.
- – Despite all of this women struggled a lot to gain the women rights.
2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
French Revolutionaries took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people:
3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
– Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and Germany. They stood as personifications of the ‘Republic’ and ‘Liberty’. They were portrayed that they gave the abstract idea of a nation in a concrete form. They would establish a sense of nationality in the citizens of these countries.
4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
• Otto Van Bismarck with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
• Three war over seven years ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
• Kaiser William I of Prussia headed the new German Empire.
5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon initiated reform drive in the French legal system because the old feudal and royal laws were very confusing and conflicting to the people. He simplified the administrative divisions of France.
1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
- – The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
- – In 1848: The population of Paris came out on the roads and Louis Philippe was forced to flee and National Assembly proclaimed a Republic. (such as Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire),
- – Men and women of the liberal middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles.
- – The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were:
Political- Constitutionalism with national unification, Nation-state with a written constitution Parliamentary administration.
Social- They wanted to end the evils of society like, partialities and birth rights. They wanted to abolish Serfdom and bonded labour.
Economic- They demanded freedom of markets and right to property.
The abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
- – Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:
- – Culture- Romanticism- Cultural movement sought to develop a particular form of Nationalist Sentiment, criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings
– Folk Songs And Folk Dances- German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder tried to discovered culture among common people, through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
– Language- Language played an important role- Russian language imposed everywhere. The use of vernacular language, the language of the masses, helped spread the message of national unity.
3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
- – Italy and Germany are two important European countries that developed a lot over the nineteenth century.
- – Both these countries were previously ruled by several princely states and thus these lands were divided into many smaller independent segments, till the middle of 19th century.
- – As there were some mass revolutions in various parts of Europe in 19th century and people became more educated, the common people of all these states unified to form common governments.
- – In Germany, German National Assembly was formed in 1848 and in Italy, the revolutionists tried to form unified Italian Republic; though they failed in both countries at that time, but leading to the unification of both countries eventually.
4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
- – There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century.
- – This unification was not a result of revolution, it was a result of long drawn out process.
- – There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. – own cultural and political tradition.
- – In 1688, England established as a nation state.
- – English parliament seized power from the monarchy. (1688)
- – The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.
- – The Act of Union 1707 resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
- – The symbols of the New Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted.
5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
- – Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans because of the spread of ideas of romantic nationalism as the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire that had previously ruled over this area.
- – The Balkans began to strive for independent rule.
- – They were jealous of each other and every state wanted more territory, even at the expense of others.
- – Also, the hold of imperial power over the Balkans made the situation worse.
- – Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary all wanted more control over this area.
- – These conflicts ultimately led to the First World War in 1914.
Rise of Nationalism in Europe Summary
The rise of nationalism in Europe was a significant event in ,history that occurred during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was characterized by a strong sense of national identity and a desire for independence and self-determination among, various European nations. The nationalism movement was fueled by various factors, including economic, political, and cultural factors.
It led to the creation of several nation-states and the downfall of empiress. The rise of nationalism also played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of Europe and the world.
The rise of nationalism in Europe refers to the movement that occurred during the 19th and early 20th centuries in which various European nations sought to assert their independence and establish their own nation-states.
This movement was fueled by a strong sense of national identity and a desire for self-determination. It was driven by -a variety of factors, including economic, political, and cultural factors. The rise of nationalism ,led to the breakup of empires and the creation of several new nation-states. It also had a significant -impact on the political landscape of ,Europe and the world.
What are the ways to learn the Chapter 1 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History faster?
There are several ways to learn the material in Chapter 1 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History faster:
Take notes as you read through the chapter. This will help you to focus on the most important information and reinforce your understanding of the material.
Tryto understand the main ideas and concepts rather than memorizing specific details. This will make it easier to retain the information and apply it to new situations.
Practice recalling the information by quizzing yourself or teaching the material to someone else. This will help you to, determine what you know and what you still need to review.
Use study aids such as flashcards or summaries to help you review the material.
Consider working with a study group or finding a tutor who can provide additional support and help ,you stay on track.
Remember to take breaks and give yourself time to rest and relax while studying. It is important to stay focused and avoid ,overloading yourself with too much information at once.
What are the topics that students will learn in the Chapter 1 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History?
In Chapter 1 -of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History, students will learn about the following topics:
1. The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
2. The Making of Nationalism in Europe
3. The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
4. The Making of Germany and Italy
5. Visualising the Nation
6. Nationalism and Imperialism
Can the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 really help students with their CBSE Term I exam preparations?
yes NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History can be a helpful resource for students preparing for their CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Term I exam. The NCERT Solutions provide detailed explanations of the concepts and topics covered in ,the NCERT History textbook, which is followed by many schools in India that are affiliated with the CBSE. working through the NCERT Solutions, students can gain a better understanding of the material and feel more, prepared for their exams.
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It is generally not recommended to use, the NCERT Solutions as the only study resource. In additionto working through the NCERT Solutions, students should also review their class notes, complete practice questions, and review any other materials provided by their teachers.
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