Best NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources

NCERT Book Solutions for Class 10 Geography Contemporary India – II Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources – Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources provides the answers to the exercises given in the Geography book – Contemporary India.


ClassClass 10
ChapterChapter 2
Chapter NameForest and Wildlife Resources
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes

1. Multiple choice questions.

  • (i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
  • (a) Agricultural expansion.
  • (b) Large scale developmental projects.
  • (c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
  • (d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.  [d]
  • (ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
  • (a) Joint forest management
  • (b) Beej BachaoAndolan
  • (c) Chipko Movement
  • (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries  [d]

2. Match the following animals with their category of existence.

Animals/PlantsCategory of existence
Black BuckExtinct
Asiatic ElephantRare
Andaman wild pigEndangered
Himalayan Brown BearVulnerable
Pink Head DuckEndemic


Animals/PlantsCategory of existence
Black BuckEndangered
Asiatic ElephantVulnerable
Andaman wild pigEndemic
Himalayan Brown BearRare
Pink Head DuckExtinct

3. Match the following.

Reserved ForestsOther forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities
Protected ForestsForests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources
Unclassed ForestsForest lands are protected from any further depletion


Reserved ForestsForests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources
Protected ForestsForest lands are protected from any further depletion
Unclassed ForestsOther forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities
  • 4. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
  • (i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
  • (ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
  • Ans. (i) Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life forms on Earth. It can also be referred as a measure of variation at the ecosystem, species and genetic level. All the species on this Earth are living in a system having multiple networks of interdependencies. Human beings also depend on several biotic and abiotic factors for their survival like they obtain food from plants animals. They are dependent on many other species to run their business and industries. Hence, biodiversity is important for human lives.
  • (ii) Following activities by humans resulted in the depletion of flora and fauna:
  • Various dam and river valley projects resulted in a decline of forest cover.
  • Illegal mining projects also destroyed forests in a vast area.
  • Increasing housing plans, factories and infrastructure also disturbed the flora and fauna adversely.
  • Hunting animals for their skin, tusk, bones, teeth, horns, etc., led many species to the verge of extinction.
  • Increasing environmental pollution caused many species of birds to extinct.
  • Increasing forest fires due to the global warming resulted in depletion of valuable forests and wildlife.

5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

  • (i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
  • (ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
  • Ans. (i) In India many traditional communities still live in a close contact with the forests as they depend on the forest produce for their livelihood. Such local communities are contributing significantly in conservation of the forest land. For example;
  • In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers fought against mining activities.
  • In Alwar district of Rajasthan, local communities belonging to five villages have set their own rules and regulations in 1,200 hectares of forest land to stop hunting and outside encroachments in these lands.
  • The Bishnois of Rajasthan protect black buck, chinkara and peacocks quite fervently.
  • Chipko movement is another example of community initiative that resisted deforestation in several areas.
  • Nature worship is an age old tradition for many local communities. By doing so, they help in conservation of forest.
  • (ii) In India, many governmental and non-governmental organisations are working towards creating public awareness for conserving forests and wildlife. Central and state governments in India have set up national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect forests and endangered species in wildlife.
    The Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme in India furnishes a good example of involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
    Under JFM local (village) institutions are set up to undertake the protection activities mostly on degraded forest land. In return, the members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timber forest produces and share in the timber harvested by ‘successful protection’.
    Many laws had been passed in the past to protect the wildlife. In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented. It made protecting specific habitats a law. It released a list of wildlife species that had to be protected.
    Hunting these animals was considered as a criminal act. “Project Tiger”, one of the well publicised wildlife campaigns in the world, was launched in 1973 to save tigers in the country.

Summery on Forest and Wildlife Resources

Chapter 2 of Class 10 Geography is titled “Forest and Wildlife Resources.” This chapter covers the various types of forests found in India, their distribution and ecological significance, along with the importance of wildlife and their conservation..

The chapter starts by discussing the different types of forests such as tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, montane and mangrove forests and their distribution in India. It also talks about the importance of forests in maintaining the ecological balance, providing, various products and services, and their economic significance.

The chapter also covers the various wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in India and their role in conservation of wildlife. It also talks about the various measures taken by the government to protect forests and wildlife, such as enacting laws and regulations, creating protected areas, and enforcing penalties for illegal activities..

The chapter concludes by highlighting the challenges faced in the conservation of forests and wildlife such as habitat loss, pollution, over-exploitation, and , climate change, along with the need for sustainable management of these resources.

Overall,/ this chapter covers a wide range of topics, providing students with a comprehensive understanding of the importance of forests and wildlife, and the need for their conservation.

FAQs on Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 2

Q: What is the main theme of chapter 2 in Class 10 Geography?

A: The main theme of chapter 2 in Class 10 Geography is Forest and Wildlife Resources.

Q: What are the different types of forests?

A: The different types of forests include tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous forests, montane forests, and mangrove forests.

Q: What is the difference between reserved forests and protected forests?

A: Reserved forests are those forests that are set aside for the purpose of preserving and protecting the forests and their wildlife. Protected forests, on the other hand, are those forests that are managed, for the purpose of harvesting timber and other forest products in a sustainable manner.

Q: What is the importance of wildlife?

A: Wildlife has both ecological and economic importance. Ecologically, wildlife helps to maintain the balance of nature by controlling pests and diseases, pollinating plants, and maintaining soil and water quality. Economically, wildlife provides resources for human use such as food, medicine, and recreation.

Q: What are the different types of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks?

A: Wildlife Sanctuaries are protected areas designated to protect specific species of animals and their habitats. National Parks are protected areas designated to protect large areas of natural landscapes along with the wildlife living in it…

Q: What is the role of government in protecting forests and wildlife resources?

A: The government plays a crucial role in protecting forests and wildlife resources. It does this by enacting laws and regulations to protect forests and wildlife, creating protected areas such as national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, and enforcing penalties for illegal activities such as poaching and logging…

Is the Chapter 2 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography important for the final exam?

YES Chapter 2 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography, which covers Forest and Wildlife Resources, is an important chapter as it covers a significant portion of the syllabus for the final exam.

The topics discussed in this chapter, such as types of forests, importance of wildlife, and role of government in protecting forests and wildlife, are important concepts that are frequently tested in the final exam.

Additionally, understanding the ecological and economic importance of forests and wildlife can also help in understanding other concepts in Geography and Environmental Science..
It is recommended that students thoroughly understand the concepts and information presented in this chapter in order to perform well in the final exam…

What are the negative factors that are causing harm to flora and fauna?

There are many negative factors that are causing harm to flora and fauna, some of the main ones include:

Habitat loss and fragmentation: Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, logging, and mining can result in the destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats, making it difficult for plants and animals to survive0.

Pollution: Air, water, and soil pollution caused by industrial and agricultural activities can harm plants and animals by contaminating their food and water sources, and by making their habitats uninhabitable.

Climate change: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by climate change can affect the distribution and survival of plants and animals, and can also lead to changes in the timing of important life-cycle events such as breeding and migration..

Invasive species: Non-native species that are introduced to an area can outcompete native species for resources, and can also spread diseases to which native species have no immunity..

Over-exploitation: Over-hunting, over-fishing, and over-harvesting of plants and animals can lead to population declines and even extinction.
Natural disasters : Natural disasters such as floods, droughts, wildfires, and storms can cause significant damage to natural habitats and harm to plants and animals..

All these factors are interrelated, and addressing one of them alone will not be sufficient to protect the flora and fauna, it needs a holistic approach to mitigate the effects and conserve it.

What’s the importance of notes in class exams?

Taking notes during class lectures and while studying is an important habit that can help students perform well on exams. Here are a few reasons why notes are important for class exams:

Organization: Taking notes helps students organize the information they are learning, making it easier for them to understand and remember.

Active listening: Taking notes requires students to actively listen to the lecture and pay attention to important details. This helps them stay engaged and retain the information better..0

Review: Having notes allows students to review the material before an exam, which can help them identify areas where they need more practice or clarification.

Study aid: Notes can serve as a study aid, helping students to review and retain the information they need to know for the exam.0

Time management : Students can use their notes to prioritize their study time and focus on the most important topics.

Personalization : Students can personalize their notes to their own learning style, which can make it easier for them to understand and remember the material..

It’s important to note that the quality of the notes is important, not the quantity. Students should focus on writing down key concepts and ideas, rather than trying to write down everything the teacher says. Additionally, reading and reviewing the notes regularly helps a lot in retention and understanding the concepts..

Q. Explain the difference between vulnerable and rare species.

Vulnerable and rare species are terms used to describe different levels of endangerment of a species.

Vulnerable species are those that are at a relatively high risk of extinction in the wild, but are not considered to be critically endangered or endangered.

These species have a declining population, and they face a high risk of extinction in the near future if nothing is done to protect them.

They are considered to be in a precarious situation and need protection and conservation..0
Rare species, on the other hand, are those that have a small population size and are found in limited geographic range.

They are not necessarily at risk of extinction, but their small population size makes them vulnerable to environmental changes and human activities.

They are considered to be uncommon, but not necessarily endangered.
It’s important to note that a species can be both rare and vulnerable, but being rare does not necessarily mean a species is vulnerable.

For example, a species that is found only in a remote and protected area might be considered rare, but may not be considered vulnerable due to the protection of its habitat.0

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categorizes species into different categories such as Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threatened and Least Concern.

This classification system is widely used by governments and conservation organizations to identify and prioritize species that need protection and conservation…

Q. What are the types and Distribution of Forests?

India’s forest and animal resources are managed by the forest department. In SST- Geography Class 10 Chapter 2 Notes, the management method is thoroughly presented for students to grasp.

India has flora and fauna spread all over the country. For a better understanding, the forests are divided into different parts.

The forest that is administered by the forest department is categorised into the following groups:
1.Reserved Forest
2.Protected Forest
3.Unclassed Forest

There are several types of forests found in the world, each with its own unique characteristics and distribution. Here are some of the main types of forests:
Tropical Rainforests: These are the most biodiverse forests in the world, and are found near the equator in areas with high rainfall.

They are characterized by tall, dense vegetation, and a wide variety of plant and animal life. They are found in countries like Brazil, Congo, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Tropical Deciduous Forests: These forests are found in areas with a distinct dry season, and are characterized by tall trees that lose their leaves during the dry season. They are found in countries like India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

Temperate Forests: These forests are found in areas with moderate temperatures and rainfall, and are characterized by a wide variety of tree species. They are found in countries like the United States, Canada, and Europe..

Boreal Forests: These forests are also known as taiga and are found in the northernmost regions of the world, such as Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia. They are characterized by coniferous trees, and are often covered in snow for much of the year.0

Montane Forests: These forests are found at high elevations, such as in mountainous regions. They are characterized by a variety of tree species, and are often home to unique and specialized plant and animal life.

Mangrove Forests: These are the forests found in the tidal zone of the coast and estuaries, characterized by mangrove trees which can tolerate high salinity, waterlogging and periodic submergence by tides. They are found in countries like India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia.

It’s worth noting that within each of these types of forests, there can be different subtypes with unique characteristics based on the environmental factors such as temperature, precipitation, topography, and soil type…

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