Class 10 Social Science NCERT Solutions 2022-23
In Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy, students learn about the different sectors of the economy and how they contribute to the development of a country.
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The chapter begins by introducing the concept of the three sectors of the economy: primary, secondary, and tertiary. It explains that the primary sector is concerned with the extraction and production of raw materials, the secondary sector is concerned with the processing and manufacturing of raw materials into finished goods, and the tertiary sector is concerned with the provision of services. The chapter also introduces the concept of the quaternary and quinary sectors, which are concerned with the creation and distribution of knowledge and information, and decision-making and management, respectively.
The chapter then goes on to discuss the different sectors of the Indian economy and their contribution to the country’s economic development. It explains that the primary sector, which includes agriculture, forestry, and mining, is a major contributor to the Indian economy, accounting for about 15% of the country’s GDP. The secondary sector, which includes industries such as textiles, steel, and automobile production, is also a significant contributor to the Indian economy, accounting for about 25% of the country’s GDP. The tertiary sector, which includes activities such as healthcare, education, and transportation, is the largest contributor to the Indian economy, accounting for about 60% of the country’s GDP.
Overall, the chapter provides a detailed overview of the different sectors of the economy and their role in the development of a country, with a focus on the sectors of the Indian economy.
10 Class Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of The Indian Economy Notes
|Chapter Name||Sectors of The Indian Economy|
|Category||Class 10 Economics Notes|
1. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
(i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has I has not)
(ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary I agricultural)
(iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organised I unorganised)
(iv) A _________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large I small)
(v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product.
(vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are_________ [independent I interdependent]
Ans. (i) Has not
Ans. (ii) Tertiary
Ans. (iii) Organised
Ans. (iv) Large
Ans. (v) Natural and manufactured
Ans. (vi) Interdependent
2. Choose the most appropriate answer.
(a) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of:
(i) Employment conditions
(ii) The nature of economic activity
(iii) Ownership of enterprises
(iv) Number of workers employed in the enterprise
Ans. (iii) ownership of enterprises
(b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in ____________sector.
(iv) Information technology
Ans. (i) primary
(C) GDP is the total value of _________ produced during a particular year.
(i) All goods and services
(ii) All final goods and services
(iii) All intermediate goods and services
(iv) All intermediate and final goods and services
Ans. (ii) all final goods and services
(d) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2013-14 is between _________ percent.
(i) 20 to 30
(ii) 30 to 40
(iii) 50 to 60
(iv) 60 to 70
Ans. (iii) 50 to 60
3. Match the following:
|Problems faced by farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1 . Unirrigated land||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|2. Low prices for crops||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
|3. Debt burden||(c) Procurement of food grains by government|
|4. No job in the off season||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|Problems faced by farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|2. Low prices for crops||(C) Procurement of food grains by government|
|3. Debt burden||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|4. No job in the off season||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
4. Find the odd one out and say why.
(i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
Ans. Tourist Guide is the odd one out because he or she is appointed by the Government Department but tailor, dhobi and potter own their private work.
(ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
Ans. Vegetable vendor is the odd one out because he works in the primary sector, while jobs of teacher, lawyer and doctor come under the tertiary sector.
(iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
Ans. Cobbler is the out one out because he works in the private sector while the postman. Soldier and police constable work for the public sector or the organised sector.
(iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio
Ans. Jet Airways is the odd one out because it is owned by a private company and MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India and All India Radio are owned by the Government of India
(v) A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.
Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city?
Ans. The percentage of workers in the unorganised sector are 70% (50+20)
|Place of Work||Nature of Employment||Percentage of working People|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Organised||15|
|Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license||15|
|People working on the street,||20|
|construction workers, domestic workers|
|Place of Work||Nature of Employment||Percentage of working People|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Organised||15|
|Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license||Organised||15|
|People working on the street,||Unorganised||20|
|construction workers, domestic workers||Unorganised||50|
6. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.
Ans. The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful as it helps to classify the different occupations that are taken up by the people In the country and how much each sector contributes to the growth of the country. It is also important because it helps in asserting that which sector contributes the most in the GDP and which sector has the scope to employ more people and increase the National Income.
7. For each of the sectors that we came across In this chapter why should one locus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.
Ans. Employment and GDP are two of the most important factors in the development of a country. Employment and GDP are used to calculate the overall productivity and National income of a country. If a country has a high employment rate, its GDP, National Income and per capita income will automatically increase. Hence these are the two things which have been given major emphasis in this chapter.
Other issues which should be examined are as follows:
1. Health care facilities
4. Food Production
8. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.
Ans. The activities performed by human beings for a living are classified into three sectors:
primary, secondary and tertiary. When we see people around us, we can classify their employment sector in either of the three classifications. Activities like cleaning, agriculture, selling vegetables are examples of the primary sector. Manufacturing of goods is an example of the secondary sector. Teaching, mining, banking, transportation are all examples of the tertiary sector.
9. How is the tertiary sector difterent from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Ans. The are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors are called tertiary activities. These activities are different from the primary and secondary sector activities. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or support for Ihe production process. For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold In wholesale and retail shops. These transportation facilities and shopkeepers come under the tertiary sector. They do not produce goods but play a very important role in selling and bringing those goods to the market.
10. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Ans. The situation of underemployment, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential is called disguised unemployment. In this case, the person considers himself employed but is actually not working.
In rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of income, this kind of unemployment can be seen often. If a piece of land requires only three people to work on it and instead five people are working on it, then the two extra people are said to be in a situation of disguised unemployment.
In urban areas, disguised unemployment is seen when painters, plumbers, electricians are unable to find work on a daily basis and work way less than their potential.
11. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Ans. Open unemployment is when a person is willing to work, is educated but is unable to get a job and work. This kind of unemployment is visible. On the other hand, disguised unemployment is when a person is apparently working but is made to work less than his or her potential. This kind of employment is quite evident in villages where people working in farms consider themselves employed but are actually working less than their potential.
12. “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons In support of your answer.
Ans. No, this is not correct. The tertiary sector is playing a significant role in the development of the Indian Economy. In the year 2003, the tertiary sector replaced the primary sector as the most producing sector in the country. A few reasons to support this are given below:
1. The primary and secondary sectors can only flourish if the tertiary sector is there to support them.
2. The tertiary sector adds up a lot to the National income of the country.
3. Education, which is the basis of everything comes under the tertiary sector. A person working as a teacher comes under the tertiary sector.
4. This sector provides the maximum employment opportunities to the people in the country.
13. ServIce sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
Ans. Service sector in India employs two different types of people. These people are:
1. Highly Skilled labour, which includes teachers, bankers, IT officials, etc. These people are permanently employed.
2. Less Skilled Labour, which includes vendors, electricians, plumber, etc. These people are not permanently employed.
14. Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. Jobs here are low paid and not regular. Hence it correct to say that workers are exploited in the unorganised sector because more work is taken from them in comparison to what they are paid. They have no provisions or extra pay for overtime and no medical benefits. The biggest problem in working in this sector is that there is no job security.
15. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Ans. On the basis of the employment conditions, the economy can be classified into two sectors:
1. Organised Sector: Enterprises registered under the Government of India, have an employee- friendly environment and are provided with various facilities including high wages.
2. Unorganised Sector: Small and scattered units which are temporary and employees in this sector are paid less.
16. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.
Ans. In the organised sector, the employees are given higher wages, medical facilities, a healthy working environment and their jobs are permanent. They are not liable to look for a new source of income each day.
In the unorganised sector, the wages are low, the employees are exploited, no extra income for extra time is given, no medical facilities are provided and the work environment is unhealthy.
17. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
Ans. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 was introduced with an aim to ensure guaranteed 1 00 days of employment in a year to all those who are in need of work. It also states that in the case of employment is not provided under this act, employment wages will be given to those left unemployed. Additional employment opportunities need to be created for people in villages and smaller towns.
18. Using examples from your area compare and contrast that activities and functions of private and public sectors.
Ans. In the private sector, the assets and industries are owned by individuals and in the public sectors industries and enterprises are owned by the Government. Private sector works to earn profits and the public sector works to provide facilities to the public and to earn profits. The common examples of public sector that we can see around us are Government Banks, Post Offices, municipal hospital and Indian railways. The common examples of private sector that we can see around us are IT companies, malls and multiplex,etc.
19. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
|Well Managed Organisation||Badly Managed Organisation|
Ans. Students must answer this question based on their own observations.
20. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Ans. The public sector activities are set for the betterment of the public Itself. The reason government has taken up the public sector is so that proper facilities can be provided to the people of the country. Banks, transport, irrigation, electricity, water and all the basic things that are necessary for people, come under the public sector and proving these facilities to its citizens is the responsibility of the Government.
21. Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Ans. The public sector is the sector that comes under the government of India. The reason for the government to take responsibility of this sector is because the basic necessities of people including water, electricity, irrigation, all fall under this category and if these departments are left unattended it will result in the downfall of the economy of a country because the growth of the country would stop. The economic development of a country depends upon the development of the people and if people are deprived of the basic necessities, the country’s economic development would be affected. Government encourages small and large industry to flourish and provides employment under this section.
22. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues : wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
Ans. The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection:
Wages: the income of the workers in the unorganised sector is not fixed and they are barely able to meet the needs to lead a decent livelihood. Hence proper and fixed wages should be given to these workers so that they can grow and contribute to the growth of the country. For example – a painter only gets paid the wages for the days he works and the other days he is jobless and is able to earn nothing.
Safety: No safety is provided to the workers working in the unorganised sector. There is no job security and anyone can be fired and removed from their work as per the requirement of the labourers. For example – A labour working in the construction of a building is left with no work once the construction is complete and has no guarantee of getting work again.
Health: Health is a very important factor for the growth and development of the country. The unorganised sector is given no medical security and if any accident occurs while they are working, the employer is not responsible for their health. For example – there is no sick leave for labourers working on daily wages.
23. A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city In this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 millIon was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
Ans. The table clearly shows that the income generated in the unorganised sector is close to 50% of the total income of Ahmedabad. In order to increase employment opportunities for the people more industries should be set up, proper education must be provided to all, proper facilities under the public sector must be provided to all.
24. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:
(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GOP for 2000 and 2013
(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?
|Total Workers||Workers in Unorganised Sector||Total Income of City (1 997-1 998)||Income generated by organised sector||Income generated by unorganised sector|
|1,5,00,000||11,00,000||60,000 million||32,000 million||28,000 million|
An Overview of Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy
In Chapter 2 of Class 10 Social -Science Economics textbook, you will learn about the different sectors of the Indian economy. The main sectors of the Indian economy are:
- Agricultural sector: This sector i-ncludes all activities related to farming, forestry, and fishing. It is the largest sector in terms of employment and contributes about 18% to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
- Industrial sector: This sector includes all activities related to the production of goods, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It contributes about 28% to the country’s -GDP.
- Service sector: This sector includes all activities related to the provision of services, such as healthcare, education, and transportation. It is the largest sector in terms of GDP and contributes about 54% to the country’s GDP.
In this chapter, you will also learn about the various- challenges faced by each sector and the efforts being made to address these challenges. You will also learn about the role of the government in the development of each sector and the various policies and programmes being implemented to promote economic development in the country.
Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy – Summary
Here is a summary of Chapter 2 of Class 10 Social Science Economics textbook on Sectors of the Indian Economy:
- The Indian economy is a mixed economy, which means that it has both a private sector and a public sector.
- The main sectors of the Indian economy are the agricultural- sector, the industrial sector, and the service sector.
- The agricultural sector is the largest sector in terms of employment and contributes about 18% to the country’s GDP. It includes activities related to farming, forestry, and fishing.
- The industrial sector is the second largest sector in terms of GDP and contributes about 28% to the country’s GDP. It includes activities related to the production of goods, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction.
- The service sector is the largest sector in terms of GDP and contributes about 54% to the country’s GDP. It includes activities related to the provision of services, such as ,healthcare, education, and transportation.
- The government plays a vital role in the development of each sector and implements various policies and programmes to promote economic development in the country.
- Each sector faces various challenges, such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of technology, and low levels of productivity. The government and private sector are working to address these challenges, and boost the growth of each sector.
Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy
NCERT solutions for class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter -2 Sectors of the Indian Economy can be beneficial for students in a number of ways:
- Comprehensive explanations: NCERT solutions provide detailed and easy-to-understand explanations for each question in the textbook. This can be helpful for students who are struggling to grasp the concepts.
- Self-study tool: NCERT solutions can be ,used as a self-study tool for students who want to review the material on their own. They can use the solutions to check their understanding of the concepts and identify any areas where they need further clarification.
- Preparation for exams: NCERT solutions can be a useful resource for students preparing for exams. They can use the solutions to practice solving -questions and review the important concepts covered in the chapter.
- Supplement to classroom learning: NCERT solutions can be used as a supplement to classroom learning. They can help students reinforce their understanding of the concepts and better retain the information.
Overall, NCERT solutions can be a valuable resource for students studying Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy.
Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development – Tips To Study Better
Here are a few tips that may help you study Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development more effectively:
- Stay organized: Create a study schedule and stick to it. Make a list of the topics you need to cover and break them down into smaller, manageable chunks.
- Take notes: As you read through the textbook -and work through the exercises, make notes of the important concepts and main points. This will help you retain the information and make it easier to review later.
- Practice regularly: Regular practice is key to mastering the concepts. Work through as many practice questions and exercises as you can, and ask your teacher or a tutor for help if you get stuck.
- Seek help if needed: Don’t be afraid to ask for help if you are struggling with a concept. Your teacher, classmates, or a tutor can provide -valuable guidance and support.
- Review regularly: Make time to review the material regularly, rather than trying to cram all your studying into one big session. This will help you retain the information better and make it easier to recall on exam day.
I hope these tips are helpful to you. Good luck with your studies!
In conclusion, Class 10 Social Science Understanding Economic Development is an important subject that covers the various sectors of the Indian economy and the challenges faced by each sector. NCERT solutions for this subject can be a useful ,resource for students, providing detailed explanations and helping them to understand difficult concepts. By staying organized, taking notes, practicing regularly, seeking help when needed, and reviewing regularly, students can improve their understanding of the material and perform better in exams.
FAQs on Class 10 NCERT Solutions Social Science Understanding Economic Development Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy
What is the main focus of Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy?
This chapter covers the different sectors of the Indian- economy, including the agricultural sector, the industrial sector, and the service sector. It also discusses the challenges faced by each sector and the efforts being made to address these challenges.
How can NCERT solutions for Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy be useful for students?
NCERT -solutions provide detailed explanations for each question in the textbook, making them a useful resource for students who are struggling to understand the concepts. They can also be used as a self-study tool, a way to practice solving questions, and a supplement to classroom learning.
How can students effectively study Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy?
To effectively study this chapter, students should create a study- schedule, take notes, practice regularly, seek help if needed, and review the material regularly. These strategies can help students better retain the information and perform better on exams.
Are there any additional resources available for studying Chapter 2 – Sectors of the Indian Economy?
Yes, there are many additional resources available for studying this chapter. Students can use online study guides, textbook -supplements, video tutorials, and practice questions to supplement their learning. They can also work with a tutor or seek ,help from their teacher if they are struggling with the material.
for more information on https://ncert-solutions-class.org/
And NCERT official website https://ncert.nic.in/ebooks.php