NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science India and the Contemporary World – II Chapter 3 – The Making of a Global World PDF Download
Chapter 3 – The Making of a Global World is a chapter from the NCERT textbook for Class 10 History Social Science.
It discusses how the world has become increasingly interconnected and interdependent over time, due to ,the development of globalization.
The chapter covers the origins of globalization in the Age of Discovery and the Industrial Revolution, and how it has, continued to evolve in the modern era.
It also examines the impact of globalization on different regions and countries, including both the positive and ,negative effects. Finally, the chapter looks at ,the challenges and opportunities that globalization presents, and how different groups have responded to these changes.
|Chapter Name||The Making of a Global World|
|Category||Class 10 HISTORY Notes|
Ch 03- The Making of a Global World
Q. 1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Ans. Before the seventeenth century global exchanges were in the form of trade and culture. Food offers an example of long distance cultural exchange which was beneficial. Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.
Example 1: Americas: Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuta, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes were introduced due to contact with original Americans into Europe and Asia.
Example 2: Asia: The silk routes are an important example of global exchange between Asia and the distant parts of the world.
These routes by land and sea knitted together vast regions of Asia, linking Asia with Europe and North Africa. Chinese silk, pottery, Indian textiles and spices from South-east Asia and in return gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia. Besides trade links cultural exchanges in the form of Buddhist, Christian missionaries and Muslim preachers went hand in hand. These travellers carried with them skills, ideas, values, spiritual messages and inventions.
Q. 2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Ans. Discovery of America and its fabled wealth in the form of land and minerals led to exodus of many Europeans. e.g. Spaniards and Portuguese. The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon (as in the case of other colonial acquisitions) but germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
The original American inhabitants had for centuries lived in isolation life, therefore they had no inbuilt immunity against diseases that came from Europe. In Europe deadly diseases were widespread. Smallpox proved a deadly killer. Once introduced it spread deep into the continent”. It killed and deciminated whole communities paving the way for conquest.
John Winthrop the first governor of Massachusetts. Bay colony wrote in May 1634 Smallpox signalled God’s blessing for the colonists the natives were near all dead of smallpox. Thus colonisation of America was a result of ‘biological warfare’ diseases such as smallpox.
Q. 3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
(a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
(a) Corn Laws: The British Governments decision to abolish Corn laws under pressure from industrialists and urban dwellers led to:
(i) Import of food more cheaply into Britian than could be produced within the country.
(ii) Farmers found cultivation of agricultural crops financially non-viable. Vat lands in Britian were left uncultivated. Thousands of men and women became unemployed.
(iii) Led to migration of rural population to urban areas. These migrants swelled the numbers of urban unemployed and contributed to poverty, housing and other urban problems.
(iv) Higher incomes and decline in food prices led to further increase in food imports.
(v) Around the world in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia lands were cleared and food production expanded with the aid of machines to meet increased British demands.
(vi) To clear lands and meet demand for labour where labour was in short supply indentured labour from India e.g., in Australia, and slaves from Africa e.g.. in America were employed.
(vii) Repeal of corn laws contributed to the emergence of global agricultural economy in the 1890s.
(b) Rinderpest: Rinderpest is a fast spreading disease of cattle plague. It had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa:
(i) The resultant loss of almost 90% of cattle, due to rinderpest destroyed the mainstay of African livelihood.
(ii) It strengthened colonial governments power and enabled European coloniser to force the Africans into the labour market as wage earners to work on plantations and in mines.
(iii) Control over left over cattle by colonial government enabled the European colonisers to finally conquer and subdue Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of World War resulted in:
(i) The First World War was the first modern industrial war. It is estimated about 9 million people died and 20 million were injured.
(ii) Reduction in able-bodied workforce in Europe.
(iii) With fewer members within the family household incomes declined after war,
(iv) Increase in child labour and women workforce.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian Economy: Due to an integrated global economy the tremors of the Great Depression which began in America and spread to Europe were even felt in India, more so in the agricultural sector because in the nineteenth century India had become exporters of agricultural goods and importer of manufactured goods:
(i) The Great Depression immediately affected Indian trade in agricultural goods.
(ii) Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934.
(iii) As international prices crashed wheat prices fell in India by 50%, prices of raw jute crashed by 60%.
(iv) Across India peasant’s indebtedness increased. Peasants who had borrowed the hope of better times, faced ever lower prices and fell deeper and deeper into debt. They used up their saving, mortgaged lands, and sold whatever jewellery and precious metals they had to meet their expenses.
(v) In these depression years India become an exporter of precious metals notably gold.
(vi) The depression gave an impetus to the national movement under Gandhiji.
(vii) The depression proved less grim for urban India, because due to falling prices people with fixed income (salaried employees, or land owners who recovered rents) now found themselves better off.
(viii) Industrial investments grew as the government extended tariff protection to industries under the pressure of nationalist opinions.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian Countries: The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries:
(i) Stimulated world trade and capital flows from developed to the developing world.
(ii) Brought many countries eg., China into the world economy.
(iii) Generated employment in developing countries and helped stimulate improvement in low wage structures and poverty.
(iv) Enabled MNCs to take advantage of low cost structure of the Chinese and Indian economy most importantly their low wages.
(v) Was said to give a boost to infrastructure development and technical skills in these countries.
Q. 4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Ans. Impact of Technology on Food:
(i) Technology enabled commercialisation of agriculture and development of global agricultural economy by 1890.
Improvement in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food (e.g., wheat and cotton), more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to the final market. e.g., England.
- (ii) The technique of cold storage and use of refrigerated ships boosted export of perishable goods without fear of loss. Example: Till 1870 meat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals, which were slaughtered on arrival. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. With the development of refrigerated ships animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point e.g., America, Australia and transported as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs, and lowered meat prices and enabled the poor in Europe to consume a more varied diet.
Q. 5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
- Ans. The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, USA established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank.
- The IMF was to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations and the World Bank was set up to finance post-war reconstruction. They started the financial operations in 1947.
- The IMF and World Bank are referred to as Bretton Woods institutions or Bretton Wood twins. To preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world it is often described as Bretton Woods Agreement. Decision making authority was given to the Western industrial powers. The US was given the right to veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions.
- The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rate. In this system national currencies e.g., Indian rupee were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The dollar itself was anchored to gold at a fixed price of $ 35 per ounce of gold.
Q. 6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
- Ans. Points for Reference: Life and feelings as indentured labourer in the Caribbea
- (i) The contractor who hired, provided false information about the final destination, mode of travel and living and working conditions.
- (ii) Living and working conditions are harsh, abusive and cruel and there are few legal rights.
- (iii) Often thought of as ‘coolies’ and Indians are an uneasy minority in the coca plantations in Trinidad.
- (iv) In case of absentism from work. One is prosecuted, and even sent to jail.
- (v) Pressure of work is unreasonably high for tasks to be completed in a day are extremely heavy.
- (vi) Deductions are also made from wages if the work is considered to have been de unsatisfactorily.
- (vii) Have to spend period of indenture in great trouble, and life is no better than that of a slave.
Q. 7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Ans. Economists identify three types of movements or flows within international en exchanges. All flows are interconnected and affect peoples lives.
(i) Flow of Trade: Refers largely to trade in goods e.g., wheat or cotton.
(ii) Flow of Labour: Refers to migration of people in search of employment.
(iii) Flow of Capital: Movement of capital for short-term or long-term investm over long distances.
In the nineteenth century, labour migration was often more restricted than gods capital flows.
- i. Flow of Trade: Historically fine cottons produced in India were exported Europe, but with industrialisation and imposition of tariff barriers trade in ate textiles dropped from 30% in 1800 to 3% in 1870 but export of raw cotton f from 5% to 35% between 1812-1871.
- Other items of export were indigo und dyeing cloth, and opium for export to China. By nineteenth century India became an exporter of raw materials and importer of British manufactures. The value imports far exceeded exports. Thus Britian had a trade surplus with India.
- ii. Flow of Labour: In the nineteenth century hundreds of Indian labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. These were indentured labourers who were faced with poverty.
- unemployment and indebtedness. Main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Carribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam) Mauritius, Fiji, Malaya and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) most stayed on after their contracts ended. Consequently there are large communities of people of Indian descent in these countries. Opposition of Indian nationalists leaders to the system as abusive and cruel led to abolition of indentured labour in 1921.
- iii. Flow of Capital: Many groups of Indian bankers and traders financed export agriculture in Central and South-East Asia using either their own funds those borrowed from European banks e.g., Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over long distances and developed indigenous forms of corporate organisations. Indian traders and moneylenders operated even in European colonies of Africa e.g., Hyderabadi Sindhi Traders.
Q. 8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression. Ans. The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930’s. It was caused by a combination of several factors:
- Ans. (i) Agricultural overproduction was a major factor. As a result agricultural prices fell and agricultural incomes declined. Farmers tried to maintain their income by expanding production. This increased the volume of goods in the market. The glut in the market pushed down prices even further.
- (ii) In mid-1920’s after the war many countries financed their investments through loans from the U.S. Withdrawal of US loans, at the first sign of trouble affected countries in varied ways. In Europe, it led to collapse of major banks and currencies e.g., British pound sterling, while in agricultural economies e.g., India and Latin America it intensified the slump in agricultural and raw material prices.
- (iii) The US attempts to protect its economy by doubling import duties dealt another severe blow to world trade.
- (iv) In US the depression was more severe because, with the fall in prices and prospect of depression US banks also slashed domestic lending and called back loans.
Q.9. (i) Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries.
(ii) In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Ans. (i) Newly independent developing countries did not benefit from the fast economic growth of the western countries. In order to catch up they organised themselves. This grouping is referred to as the G-77 countries. They demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO) – a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more developmental assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries markets.
- (ii) G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins because:
(a) The Bretton Woods twins IMF and World Bank commenced financial operations in 1947 with decision-making controlled by western industrial powers. The US had effective right to veto over key. IMF and World Bank decisions.
- (b) Developing countries were in a hurry to catch up with advanced countries therefore they invested vast amounts of capital importing industrial plants and equipment featuring modern technology.
- (c) The IMF and World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in former colonies.
- (d) As Europe and Japan built their economies they grew less dependent on IMF and World Bank. Thus from 1950s Bretton Wood Twins began to shift their attention more towards the developing countries.
- (e) Ironically as newly independent countries faeing urgent pressures to lift their populations out of poverty, they came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by former colonial powers. Therefore, they organised themselves as a group of G-77.
Q. 1. Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
Ans. According to the jute growers’ lament the traders gained from the Jute cultivation. Jute producers of Bengal increased cultivation because of the increased demand of the world market.
Peasants borrowed money to increase production in the hope of better times or increase output in the hope of higher incomes. During the Great Depression years decline in gunny bag exports, led to decline in demand for raw jute and crash in jute prices by about 60%. Forced with ever lower prices, and more bargaining power of the trader due to surpluses, the farmer fell deeper and deeper into debt.
Q. 2. Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience?
Ans. The two lessons learnt were:
i. First an industrial society based on mass production could be sustained only by mass consumption. To ensure mass consumption there was need for high stable incomes. Stable incomes inturn required steady full employment. It was realised markets alone could not guarantee full employment and intervention of governments was needed to minimise fluctuations in price, output and employment.
ii. The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if government had power to control flow of goods, capital and labour.
The Making of a Global World Summary
- Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations.
- The origins of globalization can be traced back to the Age of Discovery and the Industrial Revolution.
- Globalization has continued to evolve in the modern era, with advances in transportation, communication, and technology facilitating greater exchange and integration.
- Globalization has had both positive and negative impacts on different regions and countries.
- Globalization presents both challenges and opportunities, and different ,groupss have responded to these changes in various ways.
FAQ NCERT For Class 10 History Social Science Chapter 3 : The Making of a Global World
What is globalization?
Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations.
When did globalization begin?
The origins of globalization can be traced back to the Age of Discovery and the Industrial Revolution.
How has globalization continued to evolve in the modern era?
Globalization has continued to evolve in the modern era due to advances in transportation, communication, and technology, which have facilitated greater exchange, and integration.
What are the impacts of globalization?
The impacts of globalization can be positive or negative, and vary depending on the region or country..
How have different groups responded to the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization?
Different groups have responded to the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization in various ways. Some have embraced ,globalization, while others have resisted it or sought to mitigate its negative impacts.
What are the topics that students can learn from the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3?
The meaning and origins of globalization.
The impact of globalization on different regions and countries.
The challenges and opportunities presented by globalization.
The responses of different groups to globalization.
The role of colonialism and imperialism in shaping globalization.
The role of advances in transportation, communication, and technology in facilitating globalization.
The impact of globalization on culture and identity..
The role of international organizations in shaping globalizationn
The relationship between globalization and inequality…
How to use the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 for the CBSE Term II exam preparations?
Review the solutions to understand the key concepts and themes covered in the chapter.
Use the solutions to practice answering -questions in the same format as those found on the exam.
Pay attention to any notes or tips provided in the solutions, as they may highlight important points or common pitfalls to avoid.
If you have any questions or dfficulties while ,studying the chapter, refer to the solutions for clarification and guidance.
Use the solutions to help you review and reinforce your understanding of the material before the exam.
In addition to using the NCERT Solutions, be sure to also study the textbook and any additional resources recommended by your teacher.